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J & B: By rail from the Baltic Sea to the Sea of Japan
  1. Article metrics
  2. Description de l’éditeur
  3. Ciencias marinas
  4. Remains of a 500 year-old ship is retrieved from bottom of the Baltic Sea
  5. Rail Baltica Global Forum , April, Vilnius, Lithuania

The Yellow Sea is located between China and Korea. The name is given to the northern part of the East China Sea , which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden yellow.

Deposits of sand and silt from those rivers contribute to the sea colour. The northern extension of the Yellow Sea is called the Korea Bay. The depth gradually increases from north to south. Those deposits, together with sand storms are responsible for the yellow water color and the sea name.

The area has cold, dry winters with strong northerly monsoons blowing from late November to March. Summers are wet and warm with frequent typhoons between June and October. Fog is frequent along the coasts, especially in the upwelling cold-water areas. The sea has a warm cyclone current.

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It is a part of the Kuroshio Current , which diverges near the western part of Japan and flows northward into the Yellow Sea at the speed of below 0. Southward currents prevail near the sea coast, especially in the winter monsoon period.

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The water temperature is close to freezing in the northern part in winter, so drift ice patches and continuous ice fields form and hinder navigation between November and March. The water temperature and salinity are homogeneous across the depth. In spring and summer, the upper layer is warmed up by the sun and diluted by the fresh water from rivers, while the deeper water remains cold and saline.

This deep water stagnates and slowly moves south.

Description de l’éditeur

Commercial bottom-dwelling fishes are found around this mass of water, especially at its southern part. In the southwest monsoon season June to August the increased rainfall and runoff further reduce the salinity of the upper sea layer. Tides are semidiurnal, i. Their amplitude varies between about 0. The tidal system rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the tidal current is generally less than 1.

The tide-related sea level variations result in a land pass 2. The event occurs about twice a year, at the beginning of May and in the middle of June. It had long been celebrated in a local festival called "Jindo Sea Parting Festival", but was largely unknown to the world until , when the French ambassador Pierre Randi described the phenomenon in a French newspaper. The sea is rich in seaweed predominantly kelp , Laminaria japonica , cephalopods , crustaceans , shellfishes , clams , and especially in blue-green algae which bloom in summer and contribute to the water color see image above.

For example, the seaweed production in the area was as high as 1. The abundance of all those species increases toward the south and indicates high sea productivity that accounts for the large fish production in the sea. The salt concentration, particularly NaCl, varies from 3. For instance, in the Red Sea an enclosed basin , salinity at high summer temperatures is 4. The expansion of industry, transportation and the energy sector increases the CO 2 air content.

Ciencias marinas

This CO 2 dissolves in the seas, decreasing their pH from 8. Acidic water affects the life of marine calcifying organisms such as coral, molluscs and plankton Bonilla et al. Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion para el Desarrollo de Mexico. The future of the oceans: acid test. Nov: 76 — The infrastructure of a nation constitutes the physical base of its economic activity; its quality represents a crucial index of the industrial and social vitality of a country. During processes of growth and development, national governments emphasise the maintenance and modernisation of the infrastructure to assure the long life of these assets.

Budgets and huge efforts are spent to operate, maintain and upgrade the coastal seas infrastructure, which are composed of two types of structures: fixed and mobile. Fixed structures are on the gulfs and bays commercial and industrial ports, shipyards, rail yards, fuel terminal, naval bases, platforms for oil drilling, production, processing and storage; submarine pipelines and communication cables and electricity grid lines along the coasts Valdez et al.

Remains of a 500 year-old ship is retrieved from bottom of the Baltic Sea

The natural gas industry: equipment, materials and corrosion. The mobile structures include all types of ships large and small: civil, commercial and military. These include general bulk cargo vessels, for cereals, chemicals, minerals, cryogenic vessels for LNG, cruise tourist and recreational yachts, fishing vessels, container ships, oil tankers, military ships including cruisers, aircraft-carriers, patrol boats, light, nuclear and conventional submarines.

The International Maritime Organization IMO , a United Nations Agency, estimates that at any time about , ships and vessels roam through the oceans and seas of the world! The infrastructure elements are located along the coastline. Many infrastructure assets roads, railways, bridges were not planned or constructed to handle the actual traffic loads and need repair and rehabilitation work.

There are 70, structurally deficient U. Alternative futures for corrosion and degradation research. Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Chapter 1, The need for improved corrosion control ; p. Table 1 presents a summary of the elements of infrastructure, existing on the seacoast and the adjoining mainland. They are made of a great variety of materials of construction: steels, SS, reinforced concrete, plastics and composites, elastomers for lining of storage tanks and pipelines.

The correct selection of construction materials will assure the infrastructure resiliency in case of weather extremes. Sea coasts infrastructure. CSV Display Table. Ports for maritime commerce, and shipyards for the construction of wooden, seagoing sailing vessels, were established in ancient times, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, by the Phoenicians, the Greeks and the Romans.

Today, a marine port situated near a large city belongs to a coastal ecosystem that comprises industrial parks, agricultural fields and a hydrologic basin with streams that flow into the sea, in the vicinity of the port. Modern ports are the central link between maritime and land transportation, responsible for the exports and imports that ensure the prosperity of a nation.

The ports access, with its dredged channels to maintain a sufficient depth, allows the manoeuvring of ships. This active traffic depends on the port installations and equipment, their quays, wharves and docks, tugs, internal trains and warehouses. Breakwaters, which protect the port from powerful waves, are built entirely of large stones or rocks, or seawater resistant concrete boulders or tetrapods.

With the growth of trade, commerce and tourism and the increase in the size of oil tankers, passenger and cargo ships, many ports are being enlarged, their dock accommodations extended and their entry channels deepened. This modernisation of port facilities and equipment is a national priority, and is being actively implemented. The shipyards operate two types of docks: a floating one and a dry one.

The first serves for inspection, maintenance and repairs of ships; it incurs in high maintenance costs because the steel structure requires regular removal of corrosion products, sea fouling and scale and periodical painting, to prevent or minimise corrosion. A floating dock consists of a structure with a U-shaped profile, built of steel, with a double wall deck and a high lateral series of ballast chambers, which, upon filling with seawater, causes the dock to become submerged.

In this way, the entry of the ship to be repaired is facilitated and upon emptying the chambers by pumps, the dock emerges from the water with the ship resting on its dry deck.

Floating docks incur high maintenance costs because the steel structure, being continuously afloat, requires the regular removal of sea fouling and scale and occasional painting, as the hull of a ship does, to prevent or minimise corrosion. When the water in a port is contaminated and the sea soil beneath the floating dock contains corrosive sediments, accelerated corrosion results in a large number of cavities and perforations in the floating dock floor and the seawater chambers Schorr and Valdez Schorr M , Valdez B.

Corrosion of the marine infrastructure in polluted seaports. A dry dock is a narrow basin made of concrete, closed by steel gates, used for the building of ships. After the ship is completed the dock is flooded, and it slides slowly into the sea coast, ready to cross the oceans. The dock is also employed for repair and maintenance of all kind of watercrafts. Modern merchant and military ships built mainly from steel are sailing the seas and oceans or moored at piers ports; therefore they are affected by corrosion and fouling.

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The Royal British Navy applied copper sheets to avoid the attachment of fouling organisms. Applying modern marine paints constitute the primary method of corrosion control, with cathodic protection, by impressed current or sacrificial anodes, as a supplementary method. Improved phosphate conversion coating of steel for corrosion protection.

Innov Corros Mater Sci. Ancient and modern ship wrecks are investigated by scientists and divers, trained in coastal and underwater archeology, to discover the corrosion mechanism of metallic artefacts buried in the seafloor for centuries. Artefacts recovered include military suppliers produced from wrought- and cast-iron , religious jewellery made of gold, silver, copper and bronze and ship hardware. These activities constitute the base for the study of maritime civilisation. Nowadays, Europe, Japan, South Korea and Singapore yards are building large oil barges, oil rigs and drill-ships designed for work at the deepest water, such in the GOM.

These platforms, and the metallic underwater pipelines used to transfer oil and gas from the borehole to the surface, are fitted with sacrificial anodes for corrosion control by cathodic protection. They are towed out to sea and installed at various depths around the world. Huge petroleum-tankers haul crude and derivatives from the coast sea terminals to the refineries and consuming markets. They suffer from corrosion in the steel holds; when they cross back to the terminals, the holds are full of ballast seawater, protected with corrosion inhibitors CIs 4th Ballast Water Technology Conference 4th Ballast Water Technology Conference [Internet].

They are added to the ballast seawater as a fine powder, which converts the seawater into a colloidal suspension with particles dispersed in the water that are adsorbed on the steel surface, forming a thin, protective film. A study has been carried out by analysing the water corrosivity, composition, hardness conductivity and pH. The mechanism of the formation of a gelatinous white precipitate is based on the combination of the water and ions with the CI chemical structure Cheng et al. Inhibition of seawater steel corrosion via colloid formation.

About petroleum transportation tankers from oil-producing countries cross the oceans and seas of the world to energy-consuming countries. If, on average, each tanker has 10 cargo holds, it means 44, holds require a CI for their ballast seawater. Petroleum steel tankers Figure 1 are cheaper and more efficient than submarine pipelines installed on the seabed for oil transportation.

Rail Baltica Global Forum , April, Vilnius, Lithuania

For their trip back, the tanker holds are filled with seawater to provide adequate stability Figures 2 and 3 and safety. Petroleum transportation tanker showing holds. Figure 2. Diagram of ballast water intake and cargo discharge and loading.