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These hold implications for all students of culture and politics. The last 56 pages are dedicated to discussing the particular case of Finland. Often viewed as a good example of a "homogenous" nation-state, Anttonen shows how this homogeneity was constructed, and the effects on the ground in different parts of the region flowing from this conceptualization: how the Saami were excluded, the Karelians exalted, and the Swedes forgotten. Also interesting is the mixed reception that the scientific category of a Finno-Ugric language family has received, with some seeing links to a greater Finno-Ugric ethnic group, but with many people wary of establishing links to people in a territory belonging to the Soviet bloc.
As throughout the rest of the book, Anttonen presents convincing, well thought-out logical arguments, with implications far beyond Finland's borders. Given all that this volume has to offer, it is somewhat disappointing that the book is not a smoother read. Anttonen states in his introduction that "[d]espite the fact that most of the chapters are based on previously published articles, this book is not an anthology. The chapters are meant to form a monographic entity. This sort of thing could have been rectified by a thorough, comprehensive editing.
And while most of the book is international in scope, we suddenly on page find ourselves talking about Finland exclusively, without much context or explanation. All in all, it reads about halfway between an anthology and a monograph, which is an uncomfortable mix. Also, while Anttonen's mastery of English as a foreign language is complete, his sentence-building can at times be overly abstract and dense, producing such cumbersome humdingers as:.
While this can be frustrating even for the native English speaker, it can provide a serious obstacle for those with English as a foreign language. Still, these quibbles are over presentation, not substance.
Space hijacking and the anarcho-politics of leisure: Leisure Studies: Vol 32, No 1
During her presentation at the American Folklore Society conference in Atlanta in , Outi Lehtipuro commented at one point that good books are those which provide a pleasurable reading experience and smooth read in the sense of "curling up with a good book" , while great books are books which significantly advance our conceptual understanding.
There are many good books that are not great, and there are some great books that are not good. Likewise, Tradition through Modernity does not provide the smoothest read. It does not flow along a pleasant story, nor entice one with sugared prose. But, and I do not say this lightly, I do think it may be a great book, one which will become a hallmark of theoretical folkloristic research while also touching upon many other areas as well, perhaps most especially postmodernism itself.
In this book the reader will find many quotable passages where the author condenses complex ideas into powerfully terse prose. I highly recommend this work to anyone with an interest in folklore theory. Edited by Lawrence R. Broer and Gloria Holland. As any scholar even vaguely familiar with the critical dialogue on Ernest Hemingway's life and work knows, "Papa's" relationship with and literary treatment of women has, for decades now, been fraught with controversy.
His biography reveals a man who, despite four marriages and numerous affairs, found neither stability nor lasting satisfaction in his relationships with women. His short stories and novels likewise reveal an ambivalence toward and distrust of women—sentiments so intensely expressed in some of his works that they have long been considered proof of the author's sexism.
Indeed, from Brett Ashley to Catherine Bourne, the "Hemingway Bitch" has become a literary icon, read by some feminist critics as both an embodiment of Papa's misogyny and a reinforcement of the negative female stereotypes that have been perpetuated for centuries.
Given Hemingway's seeming inability to portray women as independent, strong, and sympathetic, as well as his iconic status as the quintessential "man's man," why should women continue to read, teach, and write about his work? Why, if at all, should we pay attention to Papa and his patriarchal ways? Broer and Holland have assembled an impressive array of seventeen critical essays—all authored, as the title suggests, by female critics—that intervene in "forty years of often superficial or misguided interpretations of Hemingway's treatment of women and gender" ix.
Rather than dismissing both Hemingway and his work as sexist, interpreting his female characters as one-dimensional and unsympathetic, or deeming the author undeserving of a female readership and critical base, the scholars included in this volume recognize, address, and grapple with the complexity of Hemingway's relationship with women, both real and fictional. Indeed, by "argu[ing] cogently for the central role of women in the Hemingway canon," the essays in this collection "expand and deepen our appreciation of gender issues in Hemingway's novels and stories, and in his life as a whole" xiii.
It is worth noting, however, that the authors' "appreciation" of Hemingway only rarely borders on adoration; this collection is not an unequivocal, uncritical celebration of Papa. As Broer and Holland note in their introduction, "these scholars do not speak in a single voice with equal sympathy for Hemingway's treatment of women nor do they respond with like readings of Hemingway's life and work" xiii. What the scholars included in this collection do share is a common aim: to reveal how the conflicts in Hemingway's short stories, novels, and personal relationships—familial, romantic, and professional—"revolve around questions of gender.
Broer and Holland have divided the book into two sections, the first of which, "Heroines and Heroes, the Female Presence," features essays that fall into three groupings. The first grouping explores the role, characterization, and significance of Hemingway's fictional women. Sinclair insists in her essay "Revisiting the Code: Female Foundations and 'The Undiscovered Country' in For Whom the Bell Tolls, " "Hemingway's iceberg principle applies to [these female characters] as profoundly as it does to any other character or novel in the canon" Sinclair further demonstrates how Maria and Pilar, characters who have been largely overlooked in critical commentary on Hemingway's women, are "not easily reducible, nor should they be, to the traditional polemic extremes critically assigned to Hemingway's fiction" She argues, in fact, that these two women collectively embody the Hemingway code—"living simply within the confines of one's circumstances, but acting courageously under those constraints" 97 —a code heretofore understood as almost exclusively male.
Similarly, Kathy G. Willingham, in "The Sun Hasn't Set Yet: Brett Ashley and the Code Hero Debate," asserts that Hemingway's most famous female character "provides a model no less significant, important, or romantic than any of the male code heroes who have inspired or influenced countless readers" Several other essays in this section likewise re-read Hemingway's fictional women, demonstrating how the heroism, depth, and complexity so often attributed to Hemingway's male protagonists and so often interpreted as the exclusive province of men, are traits shared by many of his female characters.
In short, these critics reveal not only how Hemingway deals with the matter of women, but also how the women matter in Hemingway's oeuvre. Part 1 also features essays that interrogate both Hemingway's relationship to the feminine and the female reader's relationship to Hemingway's work. Beegel offers a stunning interdisciplinary essay in which she establishes the centrality of the "Eternal Feminine" in Hemingway's novella. Drawing from a remarkable array of sources—mythology, religion, folklore, marine history, and literature—Beegel argues that the sea itself, "gender[ed] as feminine throughout the text" , is "a protagonist on an equal footing with Santiago" Putnam's desire to elicit the feminine in Hemingway's oeuvre stems from a crucial question that has long haunted female Hemingway scholars: "how do female readers who have always been moved by Hemingway's works.
Hemingway on politics and rebellion
This critical tension that Putnam identifies—a tension which underlies many of the essays in this volume—is most eloquently and compellingly addressed in Linda Patterson Miller's "In Love with Papa. Finally, several essays in "Heroines and Heroes, the Female Presence" examine the politics of gender, sexuality, and desire that characterize Papa's work, drawing attention to how his narratives often blur rather than reinscribe boundaries between male and female, masculine and feminine, straight and gay. Nancy R. Comley and Rose Marie Burwell specifically address how these blurrings have been suppressed in Hemingway's posthumous publications.
In "The Light from Hemingway's Garden: Regendering Papa," Comley discusses how The Garden of Eden challenges the longstanding image of Hemingway as the representative of machismo, yet argues that the edited, published version of the book—particularly its characterization of Catherine—belies the complexity of the novel and the author alike. Burwell, in "West of Everything: The High Cost of Making Men in Islands in the Stream, " voices a similar concern regarding the editing of Islands in the Stream, noting how those involved in the publication process "ignore[d] the complex musings on the problems of gender and creativity that are embodied in the deleted episodes" of the novel Debra A.
Moddelmog and Linda Wagner-Martin draw attention to how Hemingway's published narratives—even those posthumously published—often reveal his abiding interest in configurations of gender and sexuality that fall outside the "norm" of society. In "Queer Families in Hemingway's Fiction," Moddelmog maintains that "Hemingway's works are rife with alternative families" —or what she calls "queer" families—which "reconfigure the bonds of belonging.
Finally, Martin's "The Romance of Desire in Hemingway's Fiction" examines how Papa's works reflect the sexual ethos of their historical and cultural contexts—"times.
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Martin provocatively argues that "Hemingway's real subject was eroticism. And the form he needed to tell that story, to entice the general reader, was the romance" Thirteen of the seventeen essays in Hemingway and Women appear in Part 1; by comparison, Part 2, "Mothers, Wives, Sisters," is somewhat sparse.
The four essays in this second section focus on historical and biographical contexts of Hemingway's work and connect these contexts to his representations of women. Spanier and Sanderson adeptly illustrate Hemingway's complicated relationship with these women—as well as his indebtedness to them. As Sanderson succinctly concludes: "Whether they were adoring Parker , critical Hellman , or begrudging like Gellhorn , they helped to identify and advertise Hemingway's message, style, method, and persona" Clearly, the range of essays in Hemingway and Women is impressive; Broer and Holland have done an admirable job of selecting works that examine Hemingway's work and life from a myriad of critical angles.
Like any other collection of essays, however, some of the selections are decidedly stronger than others. In particular, the essays by Beegel, Miller, Moddelmog, Spanier, and Sanderson—whether by virtue of their writing style, their interdisciplinary rigor, or their extensive knowledge of Hemingway's life, work, and historical and cultural contexts—were much more compelling and original than the others.
Despite the relative unevenness of the selections, Hemingway and Women is an engaging and important book. By enlisting female critics who are invested in the man, the myth, and the literature—and whose insightful analyses broaden the scope of the field of Hemingway studies—this book offers an invaluable service to Hemingway scholars and feminist literary critics alike. Ann M. The Anarchists of Casas Viejas. By Jerome R. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, Fernandez, introduction, notes, illustrations, bibliography, index. First published in , this classic work by anthropologist Jerome R.
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